From Seeds of the Word, the encyclopedia of the influence of the Gospel on culture
Developer(s)D. Richard Hipp
Initial release17 August 2000;
23 years ago
Written inC
Operating systemCross-platform
Size699 KiB
TypeRDBMS (embedded)
LicensePublic domain[1]
SQLite Database File Format
Filename extension
.sqlite3, .sqlite, .db
Internet media typeapplication/vnd.sqlite3[2]
Magic number53 51 4c 69 74 65 20 66 6f 72 6d 61 74 20 33 00 (zero-terminated ASCII "SQLite format 3")
Initial release2004-06-18
Open format?yes (Public Domain)

SQLite (/ˌɛsˌkjuːˌɛlˈt/,[3][4] /ˈskwəˌlt/[5]) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) contained in a C library. In contrast to many other database management systems, SQLite is not a client–server database engine. Rather, it is embedded into the end program.

Code of Ethics

The SQLite team published a document Code of Ethics, also known as "Code of Conduct", as a reference for developers, in which the founder and the developers participating in the project pledged to govern their interactions with each other, with their clients, and with the larger SQLite community, taking inspiration from chapter 4 of the Rule of Saint Benedict.

The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation: pax ("peace") and the traditional ora et labora ("pray and work"). Compared to other precepts, the Rule provides a moderate path between individual zeal and formulaic institutionalism; because of this middle ground it has been widely popular. Benedict's concerns were the needs of monks in a community environment: namely, to establish due order, to foster an understanding of the relational nature of human beings, and to provide a spiritual father to support and strengthen the individual's ascetic effort and the spiritual growth that is required for the fulfillment of the human vocation, theosis.

This code of ethics has proven its mettle in thousands of diverse communities for over 1,500 years, and has served as a baseline for many civil law codes since the time of Charlemagne.

— SQLite Code of Ethics, Purpose, https://sqlite.org/codeofethics.html

Number 3 of the SQLite Code of Ethics states the "instruments of good works" in foresaid chapter of the Rule of Saint Benedict:

  1. First of all, love the Lord God with your whole heart, your whole soul, and your whole strength.
  2. Then, love your neighbor as yourself.
  3. Do not murder.
  4. Do not commit adultery.
  5. Do not steal.
  6. Do not covet.
  7. Do not bear false witness.
  8. Honor all people.
  9. Do not do to another what you would not have done to yourself.
  10. Deny oneself in order to follow Christ.
  11. Chastise the body.
  12. Do not become attached to pleasures.
  13. Love fasting.
  14. Relieve the poor.
  15. Clothe the naked.
  16. Visit the sick.
  17. Bury the dead.
  18. Be a help in times of trouble.
  19. Console the sorrowing.
  20. Be a stranger to the world's ways.
  21. Prefer nothing more than the love of Christ.
  22. Do not give way to anger.
  23. Do not nurse a grudge.
  24. Do not entertain deceit in your heart.
  25. Do not give a false peace.
  26. Do not forsake charity.
  27. Do not swear, for fear of perjuring yourself.
  28. Utter only truth from heart and mouth.
  29. Do not return evil for evil.
  30. Do no wrong to anyone, and bear patiently wrongs done to yourself.
  31. Love your enemies.
  32. Do not curse those who curse you, but rather bless them.
  33. Bear persecution for justice's sake.
  34. Be not proud.
  35. Be not addicted to wine.
  36. Be not a great eater.
  37. Be not drowsy.
  38. Be not lazy.
  39. Be not a grumbler.
  40. Be not a detractor.
  41. Put your hope in God.
  42. Attribute to God, and not to self, whatever good you see in yourself.
  43. Recognize always that evil is your own doing, and to impute it to yourself.
  44. Fear the Day of Judgment.
  45. Be in dread of hell.
  46. Desire eternal life with all the passion of the spirit.
  47. Keep death daily before your eyes.
  48. Keep constant guard over the actions of your life.
  49. Know for certain that God sees you everywhere.
  50. When wrongful thoughts come into your heart, dash them against Christ immediately.
  51. Disclose wrongful thoughts to your spiritual mentor.
  52. Guard your tongue against evil and depraved speech.
  53. Do not love much talking.
  54. Speak no useless words or words that move to laughter.
  55. Do not love much or boisterous laughter.
  56. Listen willingly to holy reading.
  57. Devote yourself frequently to prayer.
  58. Daily in your prayers, with tears and sighs, confess your past sins to God, and amend them for the future.
  59. Fulfill not the desires of the flesh; hate your own will.
  60. Obey in all things the commands of those whom God has placed in authority over you even though they (which God forbid) should act otherwise, mindful of the Lord's precept, "Do what they say, but not what they do."
  61. Do not wish to be called holy before one is holy; but first to be holy, that you may be truly so called.
  62. Fulfill God's commandments daily in your deeds.
  63. Love chastity.
  64. Hate no one.
  65. Be not jealous, nor harbor envy.
  66. Do not love quarreling.
  67. Shun arrogance.
  68. Respect your seniors.
  69. Love your juniors.
  70. Pray for your enemies in the love of Christ.
  71. Make peace with your adversary before the sun sets.
  72. Never despair of God's mercy.

This choice of Christian ethics as a basis for the SQLite community brought some public scrutiny upon the SQLite founder and the SQLite community.[6][7][8]

Source code

Each of the files that comprise the source code of the SQLite project, together with the free software copyright, contains a blessing:

** The author disclaims copyright to this source code.  In place of
** a legal notice, here is a blessing:
**    May you do good and not evil.
**    May you find forgiveness for yourself and forgive others.
**    May you share freely, never taking more than you give.

Biblical references

The Rule of St. Benedict is based on a number of Scripture texts, the first of which are the Ten Commandments and the Great Commandment.

The Greatest Commandment (rules 1-2)

See also the other two synoptic gospels, Mark 12:28-31 and Luke 10:25-28.

Jesus is quoting these two Old Testament passages:

The Greatest Commandment part 1: Love of God (rule 1)

The Greatest Commandment part 2: Love of neighbour (rule 2)

The Ten Commandments (rules 3-7)

See also Deuteronomy 5:6–21.

Honor all people (rule 8)

The Golden rule (rule 9)

Hillel the Elder (c. 110 BCE – 10 CE),[9] used the aforementioned verse of Leviticus 19:18 as a most important message of the Torah for his teachings. Once, he was challenged by a gentile who asked to be converted under the condition that the Torah be explained to him while he stood on one foot. Hillel accepted him as a candidate for conversion to Judaism but, drawing on Leviticus 19:18, briefed the man:

What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow: this is the whole Torah; the rest is the explanation; go and learn.

Hillel recognized brotherly love as the fundamental principle of Jewish ethics. Rabbi Akiva agreed, while Simeon ben Azzai suggested that the principle of love must have its foundation in Genesis chapter 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of Adam, who was made in the image of God.[11][12] According to Jewish rabbinic literature, the first man Adam represents the unity of mankind. This is echoed in the modern preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[13][14] And it is also taught, that Adam is last in order according to the evolutionary character of God's creation:[12]

Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, so no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, 'Our father was born first'; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation.[12]

Deny oneself to follow Christ (rule 10)

Mortification of the flesh (rule 11)

Proverbs 20:30; Romans 8:13; Colossians 3:5; Galatians 5:24

Detachment from worldly pleasures (rule 12)

1 Peter 2:10-11; Titus 2:11-13; 1 John 2:15-16; 1 Peter 1:13-14; Matthew 6:19; 1 Timothy 6:9

Fasting (rule 13)

Matthew 4:1-11; Matthew 6:16

Almsgiving (rule 14)

Deuteronomy 14:28; Deuteronomy 15:7-8; Psalm 112:5; Proverbs 19:17; Isaiah 58:7,10; Matthew 5:42; Matthew 6:1-4; Matthew 25:35; Luke 10:35; Luke 11:41; Luke 12:33; Luke 18:22; Luke 19:8; Acts 10:4,31; Acts 24:17; 1 Corinthians 16:1-3; 2 Corinthians 9:6-7; 1 John 3:17

Corporal works of mercy (rules 15-17)

Isaiah 58:6-7,10; Matthew 25:31-46

Spiritual works of mercy (rules 18-19)

The Lord is a help in time of distress, and gives comfort to the afflicted:

Psalms 9:8-11; Psalms 22:23-27; Psalms 27:4-5; Psalms 30:2-4; Psalms 46:2; Psalms 55:22; Psalms 56; Psalms 71:20-22; Psalms 116; Psalms 119:49-50; Jeremiah 29:11-14; Lamentations 3:21-24,31-33; Nahum 1:7-8; Matthew 11:28-30; John 14:15-18,27; John 16:22-23; 2 Corinthians 5:17; 1 Peter 5:5-11; Revelation 21:4

Being a help to others in times of trouble, and comforting the afflicted:

Deuteronomy 22:4; Proverbs 3:27; Proverbs 11:25; Proverbs 22:9; Matthew 5:16; Matthew 10:8; Luke 3:10-11; Luke 6:38; John 15:12; Acts 20:35; Romans 12:13; Ephesians 4:32; Galatians 6:2; Philippians 2:4; 1 Thessalonians 5:11; Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 13:16; James 2:14-17

Be a stranger to the ways of the world (rule 20)

John 15:19;17:14-16; Romans 12:2; Ephesians 4:20-24; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; 1 Peter 2:11; Hebrews 11:13-16

Prefer nothing more than the love of Christ (rule 21)

Matthew 10:37; Luke 9:62; Luke 10:38-42; Luke 14:25-33; 1 John 2:15; 1 John 2:15-17; 2 Timothy 3:2-5

Give not way to anger (rule 22)

Psalm 37:8; Proverbs 14:29; Proverbs 15:18; Proverbs 22:24; Proverbs 29:22; Ecclesiastes 7:9; Ephesians 4:26,31; Colossians 3:8; 1 Timothy 2:8; James 1:19-20

Nurse not a grudge, bear no vengeance (rules 23, 29, 30)

Leviticus 19:18; Proverbs 19:11;20:22;24:29; Matthew 5:23-24; Matthew 6:14-15; Mark 11:25; Luke 17:3-4; Romans 12:17-21; Ephesians 4:31-32; 1 Corinthians 13:4-8; Titus 3:3

Sincerity and truthfulness (rules 24, 27 and 28)

Jeremiah 17:9; Job 15:35; Psalm 5:6;10:7;36:3;43:1;101:7;120:2; Proverbs 6:16-19;12:5,17;14:8;19:9;24:28;26:24-26; Matthew 5:37; Mark 7:20-23; Romans 3:13;16:18; Colossians 3:9-10; 1 Peter 2:1,22;3:10; 2 Timothy 3:12-15; Matthew 5:33-35

Give true peace (rule 25)

Jeremiah 6:14; Ezekiel 13:10; John 14:27

Do not forsake charity (rule 26)

1 Cor 13

Love your enemy (rule 31)

Proverbs 24:17;25:21; Matthew 5:43-48;Luke 6:27-29

Bless those who curse you (rule 32)

Matthew 5:44; Luke 6:28; Romans 12:14; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Peter 3:9

Bear persecution for the sake of righteousness (rule 33)

Isaiah 51:7; Matthew 5:10-12; Luke 6:22-23; John 15:20-21; Acts 5:41; Acts 21:13; 1 Peter 4:14-16

Be not proud (rule 34)

1 Samuel 2:3; 2 Chronicles 26:16; Psalm 10:2-4;31:18;36:11;75:4-5;94:4; Proverbs 8:13;11:2;13:10;16:18;18:12;21:4,24;29:23;30:13; Ecclesiastes 7:8; Isaiah 2:17;5:15;13:11;16:6; Jeremiah 13:9;48:29;50:32; Ezekiel 16:49; Daniel 5:20; Hosea 5:5; Acts 12:20-23; Romans 12:16; 1 Corinthians 4:18;13:4; James 4:16

Do not be addicted to wine (rule 35)

Proverbs 20:1;23:29-35; Isaiah 5:11;5:22;28:1-3,7-8; Romans 13:13; Ephesians 5:18; 1 Timothy 3:2-3,8; Titus 1:7;2:3; 1 Peter 5:8

Be not a great eater (rule 36)

Proverbs 23:2,20-21; Philippians 3:19

  1. "SQLite Copyright". sqlite.org. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  2. "SQLite database file format media type at IANA". Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. IANA. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  3. "Why SQLite succeeded as a database — Richard Hipp, creator of SQLite". The Changelog. Episode 201. Event occurs at 00:17:25. How do I pronounce the name of the product? I say S-Q-L-ite, like a mineral.
  4. D. Richard Hipp (presenter) (May 31, 2006). An Introduction to SQLite (video). Google Inc. Event occurs at 00:01:14. Retrieved March 23, 2010. [...] ess-kju-ellite [...]
  5. D. Richard Hipp (presenter) (May 31, 2006). An Introduction to SQLite. Google Inc. Event occurs at 00:48:15. Retrieved March 23, 2010. [...] sequelite [...]
  6. https://www.theregister.com/2018/10/22/sqlite_code_of_conduct/
  7. https://pjmedia.com/news-and-politics/paula-bolyard/2018/10/24/tech-community-outraged-after-sqlite-founder-adopts-christian-code-of-conduct-n61746
  8. https://archive.fo/qivKH
  9. Jewish Encyclopedia: Hillel: "His activity of forty years is perhaps historical; and since it began, according to a trustworthy tradition (Shab. 15a), one hundred years before the destruction of Jerusalem, it must have covered the period 30 BCE–10 CE"
  10. Shabbath folio:31a
  11. (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Genesis Rabba 24
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 "ADAM". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
  13. "Mishnah Seder Nezikin Sanhedrin 4.5". sefaria.org. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  14. "Tosefta on Mishnah Seder Nezikin Sanhedrin 8.4–9 (Erfurt Manuscript)". toseftaonline.org. 2012-08-21.